A-B Ι C-D Ι E-F Ι G-H Ι I-J Ι K-L Ι M-N Ι O-P Ι Q-R Ι S-T Ι U-V Ι W-X Ι Y-Z

1080p: A set of HDTV video modes featuring 1080 horizontal lines of vertical resolution and progressive scan. The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 1920×1080 (2.1 megapixel), which is often marketed as “Full HD.” A 1080p display device can accept 1080p signals in native-resolution format.

3 Gb/s (Gigabits per second), 3G Video; 2.98 Gbit/s; 3 Gig: Latest uncompressed video standard to deliver an even better image, color quality, motion and sharpness than the current 1.5 Gbps standard (often called 1.49 Gbps). Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules and X100 support this feature.

3DTV, 3D Television: Conveys depth perception to the viewer via several display techniques. Selenio XD / FS modules, and X100 support this feature.

4:2:0 / 4:2:2: Sampling systems used to digitize the luminance and color difference components of a video signal. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules and X100 support this feature.

4K (UltraHD, UHD or UHDTV); 2160p, 12G: content having horizontal resolution of approximately 4,000 pixels (depending upon industry or consumer format – UHD is the generally accepted consumer format description). Selenio Network Processor supports this feature both via baseband and Uncompressed over IP functionality.

8K (Super Hi-Vision); 4320p: content having horizontal resolution of approximately 8,000 pixels (depending upon industry or consumer format – Super Hi-Vision is the generally accepted consumer format description). Selenio Network Processor may support this format in the future – gather use case information.

A-to-D, D-to-A: Analog to Digital Conversion or Digital to Analog Conversion. Selenio XD / FS modules and X100 support this feature.

A/V Sync Timing; Audio to video synchronization; Lip Sync: timing of the video and audio signal as it relates to each other to ensure proper viewing of the video as it relates to the audio (e.g. lips move in perfect timing as the video shows the actor speaking. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Accounts Receivable (A/R or Receivables): An accounting function by which a company keeps track of money owed to it, typically by an advertising agency and/or advertiser. Each invoice is tracked from the date it was produced until the date it is paid.

Acquisition: In rights management, the purchase of distribution rights to a packaged or finished project by a production company, studio or distributor.

Ad Agency (Advertising Agency): A company, engaged by an advertiser, which specializes in the production of creative advertising material and its placement in the media (broadcast, digital signage, magazines, etc.) in order to further the acceptance of a brand, product or service.

Ad-ID: Industry-standard unique identifier for all commercial assets. Replacing the ISCI system, Ad-ID identifies content to ensure that the correct assets are delivered to media outlets, using a common, centralized, Web-based source for content identification. The Ad-ID code contains details of the ad, the media the ad will be used in, clearance status, and usage restrictions.

Adaptive Bit Rate (ABR) Streaming: A technology that enables the best possible streaming video viewing experience for a broad range of devices by adjusting the quality of the content delivered to the viewer. ABR detects available bandwidth and CPU capacity in real time and adjusts the quality of the video stream as needed, to ensure that content is delivered with as little buffering as possible. Adaptive streaming techniques produce multiple small (usually 2-10 second) files encoded at different bit rates, from the originating source file, to distribute to viewers watching on different powered devices via different connection speeds. As content is streamed, the video player client switches between the segmented files depending on available resources. This operates transparently, with slight changes in quality as the streams switch.

Adaptive Audience Fulfillment: An advertising model where digital and linear inventory is sold by audience and spots are dynamically booked/fulfilled continuously based on real-time performance metrics until the order is fulfilled. Landmark Sales and xG GamePlan support this model.

Addressable Advertising: Advertising shown to different groupings of households who share common characteristics. Viewers will see advertising that is more relevant to them. Advertisers can address market segments by more precisely tailoring ads to their audiences and increasing the impact of the messages.

Advanced Television Systems Committee Standard : Standards organization for digital television and mobile television transmission over terrestrial, cable and satellite networks; used by the United States, Canada, South Korea, Mexico, and other countries. The high-definition television standards defined by the ATSC produce widescreen 16:9 images up to 1920×1080 pixels in size. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

Advertiser: An individual, business enterprise or special interest group who uses the media to draw public attention to their products, goods or services.

AES audio: Audio Engineering Society that promotes standards in the professional audio industry. AES audio is an industry standard. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Affiliate Station: A broadcast station in a contractual agreement with a network (not owned by the network). The contract grants the network a broadcast signal in the station’s market to air its programs, providing an audience for the network’s advertisers. In exchange, the local station gets programming and is typically allowed to air a small number of commercials during these shows.

Affidavit: A proof-of-performance document that conveys the spots ordered by the advertiser, the spots aired by the station, the copy that ran for each spot, and any discrepancies that might have occurred during the given billing period.

Alternate Log: In the event that last-minute changes are anticipated, an alternate log allows for the entry of alternate programming to give to master control in case the main log should not air.

Amortization: A measure of the consumption of the value of a depreciable asset (e.g., program content or a physical asset such as a video server), allowing the deduction of capital expenses across an asset’s life.

Analytics: The discovery and communication of meaningful patterns in business data, such as sales performance data or historical billings, to describe, predict, and improve business performance.

Ancillary data (ANC data): refers to a means which by non-video information (such as audio and metadata) may be embedded within the video signal. The Ancillary data can be located in non-picture regions of the frame; Horizontal scan line data is Horizontal ancillary data or HANC and Vertical scan line data is Vertical ancillary data or VANC. The Data Identifier (DID) and Secondary Data Identifier (SDID) word indicates the type of ancillary data to which the packet corresponds. Selenio XD / FS modules and X100 support this feature.

Announcement: Any advertising message in a broadcast medium, including promotional spots, public service announcements and station IDs, as opposed to commercial inventory.

API: Application Programing Interface. Defines the correct way for a software developer to write code that enables two programs to communicate with each other.

Aspect Ratio: The ratio of a screen’s width to its height. Widescreen TV (16:9 or 16×9) has an aspect ratio of 1.77 to 1. Theater screens are generally 1.85×1, and TV (4:3) is 1.33 to 1.

As Run File: The electronic file that is created by the automation system of the events that played out.

Aspect Ratio Conversion: the proportional relationship between the video width and height – this is important for the various media types of consumption (e.g. television, tablets, mobile phones, laptops, etc.). If the video can’t be modified in its entirety, then black bars are added (e.g. called side panels; pillarbox; letterbox). I-Wings are when the black bars are filled with motion video or branding information. 16 by 9 (16:9) and 4 by 3 (4:3) are two popular screen resolutions. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules and X100 support this feature.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM); ATM Interface: A data transmission scheme for video and audio transport over telecom links (e.g. DS-3 / OC-3 / OC-12).

ATSC 3.0: The next generation terrestrial broadcast system designed to improve the television viewing experience with higher audio and video quality, improved compression efficiency, robust transmission for reception on both fixed and mobile devices, and more accessibility, personalization and interactivity.

Audience: A group of households or individuals who are attending, listening or watching something. It is often used to indicate viewers of a television program or another advertising medium.

Audience-based Buying: A trading methodology whereby advertisers or agencies identify the audience target commitments they want to achieve, as opposed to a prescriptive specification of volume and/or location of spot bookings (Spot-based Buying).

Audience Targets: A volume-based goal attached to an advertising campaign. The amount of a given target audience segment or demographic that is required to satisfy the campaign goals.

Audio Adjustment, Audio Swap; Audio Channel Swapping: process of manipulating audio by adjusting its volume or moving audio channels within or between two or more video signals. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules and X100 support this feature.

Automation: The process of making manual processes system-led and automated. Typically used to increase cost efficiencies and improve performance. xG GamePlan supports this feature.

Automation (Playout Automation): Computer-controlled switching between various on-air program and spot sources, according to a program schedule. Programs and commercials, as well as digital on-screen graphics stored on video servers, are controlled. These systems can be extensive and include modules that allow the ingest (capture) of video and management of the video library, as well as delivery of electronic program guide (EPG) information. ADC™, D-Series™, and Versio™ Automation support this feature.

Automated Ingest, Automatic Format & Audio / Video Configuration Conversion, Intelligent processing: Selenio process that automates the recognition of the incoming video and audio signal and then applies configuration rules to ensure the processed video is the desired configuration before it is routed further. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules and X100 support this feature.

Availability (Avail): A representation of time on a station, cable channel or network offered (“available”) for sale. Also known as an avail or commercial break. Commercial breaks typically run from 30 seconds to 5 minutes and can contain one spot or a cluster of spots.

Backoffice: Administration and support personnel/software, not client-facing.

Bandwidth: A range of frequencies in the broadcast spectrum occupied by a signal. The “necessary bandwidth” is the amount of spectrum required to transmit a signal without distortion or loss of information. Bandwidth can be subdivided to include PSIP data, several video subchannels (feeds) of varying quality and compression rates and non-video datacasting services, as long as the necessary bandwidth is not exceeded.

Baseband Video, Uncompressed Video: A state in which the video signal is transmitted in its original form such as HD or HD-SDI (1080i / 720p / 1080p) or SD or SDI (480i / 480p) and not compressed or modulated. Only short distances (e.g. within a building) can be utlized. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Big Data: A collection of large, unstructured or fast-moving data sets, with a complexity that is difficult to process with traditional data processing applications. Typically, big data may include traditional operating data from one or more systems, as well as information from web logs, social media, geolocation, and other datasets. Big data applications can provide analytics to provide support and insight into evolving business processes, and to spot business and competitive trends.

Blackout: A blackout event consists of a portion of programming that must not be distributed to a specified set of regions, often specified by ZIP code. Regions that are blacked out will get either a slate showing that content is being blocked or will show alternate content. Blackouts are often the result of contractual requirements content owners place on content distributors. In North America, sporting events are often blacked-out. In Canada, some US channels have content that is restricted and substituted with Canadian content – this form of blackout is called simultaneous substitution or simsub. Blackout is sometimes signaled using SCTE-35 cues included in-band in the video stream, but often no cues are present and the blackout information is presented out-of-band in separate files using some format such as CableLabs ESNI, SCTE-224, MediaStats (for simsub), or a proprietary format.

Bookend: An advertising approach that involves splitting an ad into two parts (typically a 30-second ad into two 15-second ads) and airing one portion at the beginning of the break and the other at the end of the break. Ads airing between the two are not related to the bookend.

Branding: Self-promoting graphical elements aired during television programming. Common branding includes channel logos (bugs), snipes (animated promotional logos), and “coming up next” graphics.Self-promoting graphical elements aired during television programming. Common branding includes channel logos (bugs), snipes (animated promotional logos), and “coming up next” graphics.

Break: The time between two programs or program segments used for announcements, news briefs, credits or commercials.

Broadcast Calendar (Standard Calendar): A calendar used in accounting procedures in the broadcast industry in some countries, containing four or five weeks, with each month beginning with the first Monday of the calendar month and ending on the last Sunday of each month. Download Imagine’s 2020 Broadcast Calendar here.

Bug: A translucent logo typically placed in the corner of the screen, used to watermark a program for channel identification. Known as a dog in the UK and New Zealand, and as a bug in the US, Canada, and Australia.

Bumper (Transition): A short announcement inserted between a program segment and the first commercial in a break. In some countries, this is required going into a break and coming out of a break. Example: “The program will return after these messages.”

Business Intelligence (BI): Techniques to transform raw data into meaningful and useful information to help businesses identify and develop opportunities. BI uses historical, current and predictive views of business data to provide reporting and visualizations, typically with the goal of delivering a competitive market advantage.

Business Management Software: Systems for advertising management, sales, traffic, billing and analytics that maximize ad revenue by streamlining business processes across multiple channels and platforms.

BXF (Broadcast eXchange Format): Standardizes the communication of data exchange of Schedule and As-Run Data, Content Metadata, and Content Movement instructions, as defined by the SMPTE 2021 standards. BXF enables the automated exchange of Live Log information from Programming & Rights, Sales, Traffic & Billing, Asset Management and Playout Automation systems.

Cache Miss Rate: Percent of time when a requested asset is not in the CDN and must be pulled through JITP.

Calendar Billing Period: A billing period that has a date span of (or within) one calendar month. For example, July 1 through July 31 is considered a calendar billing period.

Call Letters: A station’s identification assigned to it by the FCC (USA), CRTC (Canada), ACMA (Australia) or other country’s regulatory authority, which typically must be broadcast at a certain time, such as the top of an hour. Outside of Japan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan, call letters are not used widely in Europe or Asia, where abbreviations of the station’s names are commonly used.

Campaign: A specific advertising effort on behalf of a particular product or service that extends for a specified period of time.

Capacity: The total amount of inventory, represented in minutes and seconds or in units (radio), which the program format allows within the program.

Catch-up TV/Replay TV/Backward EPG: Previous broadcasted content available on-demand.

CDN: Content Delivery Network. Delivers content to the end clients; and caches content.

Channel: A frequency band assigned by a regulatory authority for AM, FM or TV transmission. Each broadcast television station is permitted to operate on only one channel. Channels are assigned geographically to minimize interference between stations.

Channel branding; branding; logo insertion; slate; slide; On Screen Display (OSD): the process of adding local station identifications, names or slogans (e.g. NBC’s “peacock” logo; CBS’ “eye” logo, “Camera 5”, etc.). A slate or slide insertion is the full screen logo or display (e.g. “we are having technical difficulties”). Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 modules, and X100 support this feature.

Chrominance: The color component of a video signal that includes information about hue and saturation. Changing chrominance can manipulate the desired picture effect. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules, and X100 support this feature.

Clash: Competitive brands, products, or services that do not advertise in the same commercial break or within a program sponsored by one another.

Closed Captioning (CC): A form of Teletext for persons with hearing disabilities, which translates program dialog into written words that are superimposed on a TV screen. A special decoder is required to see the captions.

Cloud Computing (Cloud): A variety of computing concepts that typically refer to network-based services delivered by virtual hardware. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve economies of scale by sharing processing resources, electricity, air conditioning, and physical equipment space. Cloud (virtual) servers do not physically exist and can, therefore, be moved and scaled up (or down) on the fly without affecting the end user, similar to how clouds move through the sky. When a process “moves to the cloud,” it is moving away from a traditional CAPEX model (acquire hardware and depreciate it over time) to the OPEX model (shared infrastructure, paid for as it is used).

Cloud DVR (cDVR): Video recorder that resides in a cloud or network, not on customer premises; goes far beyond Netflix-type video on demand/streaming to include a user-defined recording of content. See Network DVR: nDVR, Network Personal Video Recorder: nPVR, Remote Storage DVR: RS-DVR.

CMS: Content Management system; used to manage VOD library.

Codec: A codec is a device, software or firmware program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal. A codec encodes a data stream or signal for transmission, storage or encryption, or decodes it for playback or editing. Codecs are for both audio and video applications, and is used in videoconferencing, streaming media, storage, video editing, and video delivery applications. Examples are JPEG-2000, MPEG-2, and H.264 for video and Dolby AC-3 for audio, etc. Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Color Correction: process of using color filters to alter the video color (or color of light) to improve or add an effect. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS, and X100 modules support this feature.

Combo: An abbreviation for combined stations, commonly referring to a method of selling commercials across a pilot (controlling station) and one more or satellite stations (typically in nearby, but different markets).

Commercial: Advertisement, announcement, spot or message aired on television, radio or cable and paid for by an advertiser.

Compression artifacts: Compacting of a digital signal, particularly when a high compression ratio is used, may result in small errors or blocking when the signal is decompressed. Correcting the compression artifacts can be helpful after decoding the video to baseband along with using a different encoder. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules, and X100 support this feature.

Conditional access; encryption; decryption; scrambling: Digital television signals can be scrambled in such a way that they cannot be understood by a conventional decoder. Only when unscrambled by a special system can the original pictures be seen by the viewer. BISS encryption and third party encryptions like Nagra and Irdeto are often used. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

Constant bit rate; CBR: the delivery of encoded video where there is dedicated bandwidth assigned. The opposite is Variable bit rate (VBR), which is the delivery of encoded video where the bandwidth varies according to the video complexity. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

Content Management: Tasks and workflows involving the capture, cataloging, storage, retrieval and distribution of digital assets, such as program content, commercials, audio, video, and other media content. Used somewhat interchangeably with Digital Asset Management (DAM) and Media Asset Management (MAM). Nexio® Motion™, Versio™ Content Portal, and Versio™ IOX support this feature.

Continuity: In television, refers to the function of people in a traffic department perform to ensure proper processing of commercial advertisements. In radio, refers to the script or text used in a radio commercial. In film and program production, refers to the act of ensuring that concurrent scenes continue correct settings of props and costumes. In advertising, refers to the scheduling of advertising consistently over a period without interruption, in order to build or maintain advertising awareness and recall.

Continuous Record: Non-stop recording of mezzanine-encrypted chunks for use in later JITP operations.

Contract: An order by a client for the broadcast of commercials. Contains information about desired timing and context of the spots, as well as the billing information and usually serves as the legal agreement between an agency or advertiser and the broadcaster.

Contribution quality: The level of quality of a video signal from the event to the production facility. For high end production, this is anywhere from 15 to 100 to 200 Mbps and is dependent upon codec and desired picture quality. Uncompressed baseband video is also used for this type of signal. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules support this feature.

Copy: Material to be read or produced into a commercial spot. Generally used to refer to announcer’s material or commercial continuity. Commercial copy is often received at a station digitally.

Copy Rotation (Rotation Schedule): Used by an advertiser to rotate multiple pieces of advertising copy (pre-recorded commercials or scripts) to avoid redundancy or to stress several different products or services in an advertising campaign. Typically, commercials are rotated evenly, or by a ratio or percentage.

Cost Per Point (CPP): The media cost of reaching one percent (one rating point) of a household or demographic. Used by most media planners in developing and allocating market budgets and setting rating point goals.

Cost Per Thousand (CPM): The cost to reach 1,000 people with a specific message, used to compare the relative cost efficiency of different programs, stations, or media. M is the Roman numeral for thousand.

Crawl: Graphics typically residing in the lower third of the television screen space dedicated to presenting headlines or minor pieces of news, sports scores and other information. Also referred to as a news ticker or slide.

Cross-Ownership: Ownership by a single entity of more than one communications medium in a given market.

Crosspoint: a source that has been assigned to a destination. For example if Source 2 has been switched (routed) to Destination 5, then this is a crosspoint on the router. Platinum IP3 and Platinum MX support this feature.

CRTC: Abbreviation for the Canadian Radio/Television and Telecommunications Commission, the regulatory agency governing the broadcast industry in Canada.

Cut-In (Rollover): A station substitution of a local spot that will cover up a spot being fed to the station from another source, such as the network. Cut-ins may be regional messages, local news bulletins, or weather forecasts inserted in a national program. In radio, refers to a remote broadcast from outside the studio.

Cut-Off: The latest time a spot is allowed to run. Cut-off time is determined by the client and is generally applied across the board. Spots running after cut-off usually will not be paid for.

DARE: Direct Agency Rep Exchange (DARE) enables buyers to speed the process of buying and order maintenance by sending electronic orders, make-goods, replacements for unavailable spots and bonus offers between sales houses (rep firms), advertisers and channels.

Dark Fiber: Lengths of fiber strands laid but unused from previous metropolitan fiber build outs. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules, X100 and 6800+ Opto+ modules support this feature.

Daylight Savings Time (DST): A method, typically set by regulatory authorities, of getting more daylight out of the summer days by advancing the clocks by one hour during the summer. This impacts radio and TV programming as an hour of programming must be eliminated at 2:00 am in the spring and an extra hour of programming must be inserted at 2:00 am in the fall.

Daypart: The division of a television or radio broadcast day into individual parts for ad scheduling purposes; typically reflect a TV or radio channel’s programming patterns. Common dayparts include Morning, Daytime, Prime Access and Prime Time, but the times of each daypart can vary by channel.

Dead Air: An unintended break in a television or radio broadcast that result in no video or audio for television and no audio for radio.

Decoder; linear decoder; video decoder; ASI to HD conversion: a device that decompresses a video and audio signal from a smaller compressed stream or file using a codec such as H.264, MPEG-2, or JPEG-2000 back to HD-SDI or SDI. Selenio DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules support this feature.

Delivery: The transport of media content (video, audio, metadata, and ancillary data) for distribution to the end user.

Demodulator; Demod: device to extract the video and audio-bearing signal from a modulated transport, such as a satellite carrier.

Demographics (Demos): The representation of program audience data based on various characteristics such as age, sex, income, education, marital status, etc. Usually, this relates to the representation of the data for a sales presentation. Example: “Women aged 25-34” (abbreviated W25-34) is a demographic group.

Demultiplexing; DEMUX: Demultiplexer: Separating elementary streams or individual channels of data from a single muti-channel stream. Selenio MDX2 modules support this feature.

Dialog Normalization (Dialnorm): is the meta-data parameter that controls playback gain within the Dolby Laboratories Dolby Digital (AC-3) audio compression system. For example, ATSC dialnorm is usually in the -27 or -24 range. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Digital Asset Management: Tasks and workflows involving the capture, cataloging, storage, retrieval and distribution of digital assets, such as program content, commercials, audio, video, and other media content. Used somewhat interchangeably with Media Asset Management (MAM). Nexio® Motion™, Versio™ Content Portal, and Versio™ IOX support this feature.

Digital news gathering (DNG); Electronic news gathering (ENG): video aggregation using digital equipment and/or transmission. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules support this feature.

Digital Video Broadcasting standard (DVB): Europe, Africa and some other parts of the world broadcast in this standard. The term will often will have a suffix for the device type or standard level (e.g. DVB-H for Handheld devices; DVB-T for TV’s, etc.). Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

Distant Signal: A television channel from another market imported and carried locally by a cable television system.

Distribution: The transport of media content (video, audio, metadata, and ancillary data) for delivery to the end user. Video Delivery Edge (VDE) and Packager products support this feature.

Distribution Amplifier (DA): a device that accepts a single input and creates four or more exact copies of the signal. Baseband video (uncompressed), AES audio, and video Transport Streams (compressed) signals are the most popular uses. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS, 6800+ Distribution Amplifiers (DA) modules, and X100 modules support this feature.

Distribution quality: The level of quality of a video signal from the source to its viewers. The bandwidth is dependent upon the desired picture quality and number of signals (e.g. ATSC). Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 modules support this feature.

DMA (Designated Market Area): A geographic area that represents specific television markets as defined and updated by Nielsen.

Dolby Audio Encoder / Decoder, Dolby Digital AC-3 Encode / Decode, Dolby E Encode/Decode: Dolby Surround; Various Dolby audio standards can be encoded and / or decoded for consumers to receive via 2.0 (two channels), 5.1 (five channels plus woofer), or other audio channel configurations. Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Donut: An ad having a beginning and an end with a place in the middle for the insertion of a video or voice over. This approach enables one ad to be used for different sponsors.

DRM: Digital Rights Management; access controls intended to control the use, modification, and distribution of copyrighted works, such as media content and software.

Drop Frame: A method of adjusting the nominal 30 frames-per-second frame rate of SMPTE ST 12-1-time code to 29.97 (29.97002618) frames per second. This permits time of day indexing of the frame numbers by dropping frames 0 and 1 at the beginning of each minute (except minutes 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50), to compensate for an approximate timing error of 108 frames (3 seconds, 18 frames) per hour.

DS3; DS-3: A format for transmitting information digitally. DS3 has a transmission capacity of 44.736 Mbps (commonly referred to as 45 Mbps).

DTH (Direct to Home): Technology that enables a satellite company to directly beam a television signal to your TV set through a receiver (personal satellite dish) that is installed in an individual home or building. A DTH network consists of satellites, encoders, multiplexers, modulators, and DTH receivers.

DTS Neural Loudness Control; CALM processing; Stereo Audio Loudness Control; 5.1 Audio Loudness Control: Digital Theater Systems (DTS) process is used to ensure the audio levels for 2.0 stereo, mono or 5.1 audio is a constant level for improved viewer performance. Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 modules, 6800+ Advanced Audio modules and X100 support this feature.

DTS Neural Surround Multi-Merge (5.1 pass through / Auto 2.0 to 5.1 Upmix): Digital Theater Systems (DTS) MultiMerge process is used to convert 2.0 audio to 5.1 automatically while passing through any 5.1 audio untouched for a consistent quality of sound; Upmix process converts 2.0 audio to 5.1 audio always. Selenio XD / FS modules, 6800+ Advanced Audio modules, and X100 support this feature.

DTS Upmix (2.0 to 5.1 audio, Downmix (5.1 to 2.0 audio): Digital Theater Systems (DTS) Upmix process converts 2.0 audio to 5.1 audio always; and Downmix converts 5.1 audio to 2.0 audio. Selenio XD / FS modules, 6800+ Advanced Audio modules, X100 support this feature.

DTV (Digital Television): The transmission of video and audio by a digitally processed and multiplexed signal, enabling the broadcast of movie-quality picture and sound, as well as multicasting and interactive capabilities. While sometimes used synonymously with HDTV (High Definition Television), DTV refers to the actual TV signal being transmitted digitally. Digital television supports both HDTV, for the transmission of high-definition video and standard-definition television (SDTV).

Dub: A duplicate recording of audio or videotape masters. Also used for creating a completely new soundtrack in an alternate language, as in dubbing English for a foreign film.

Duopoly: An instance where the same company owns two or more stations in the same designated market area (DMA or market).

DVB-ASI; Asynchronous serial interface (ASI): All video is transmitted in MPEG transport streams as either single program transport streams (SPTS – 1 video program) or multiple program transport streams (MPTS – more than 1 video program). Selenio MDX2 modules support this feature.

Dynamic Ad Insertion (DAI): Dynamic Ad Insertion (DAI) enhances advertising on the On Demand platform, allowing ads to be dynamically inserted into a VOD program at the beginning and the end of program segments.

EDI (Electronic Data Interchange): The transfer of data from one computer system to another for conducting business transactions electronically. In Media systems, EDI provides efficient tools for processing spot TV buys and related components such as invoices, electronically.

Efficiency: In Ad Speak, the measurement used to ensure that the desired demographic audience for a campaign is delivered using the minimum amount of inventory and without wastefully consuming other scarce
target audiences. (see Wastage)

Electronic Contracts (EC): Contracts sent “electronically” and through various processes and accepted into traffic software packages.

Electronic Invoicing (EI): The transmission of invoices electronically, whereby agencies receive them for payment.

Electronic Program Guide (EPG): Digital schedule allowing television viewers to scan available channel offerings and tune to current programs using a remote control or other input. Digital TV receivers use this information to tune and label digital and analog channels. The ATSC-created PSIP Standard (Program and System Information Protocol) specifies the transport of channel names, tuning information and EPG data.

Emergency Alert System (EAS): A broadcast warning system in the U.S. that interrupts normal broadcasting to provide authorities with the ability to send a message in the event of an emergency. EAS alerts contain an audible tone, as well as the message. Many other countries have similar concepts to EAS systems.

Encoder; Linear encoder; video encoder; HD to ASI conversion: a device that compresses HD or SD video and audio signals into a smaller stream or file using a codec such as H.264, MPEG-2, or JPEG-2000. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / J2K modules support this feature.

Encoding: The process of putting information into digital format. Commercials received on tape may be “encoded” into a server.

Encoding, compress; data compression: A digital picture manipulator effect where the picture is squeezed (made proportionally smaller) using a codec that converts video and audio signals into a digital format for transmission or storage. Codec types are MPEG-2, H.264, JPEG-2000, etc.). Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / J2K modules support this feature.

FCC (Federal Communications Commission): A United States government agency that regulates interstate communications, including television, satellite, cable, radio, and wire.

Feed: To send a program or signal. For instance, feeding a program from one station via satellite to other stations.

Fiber optics; Fiber Interface: Thin glass filaments within a jacket that optically transmits video signals in the form of light over distances with extremely low losses. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, X100 and 6800+ Opto+ modules support this feature.

Format: In ad speak, program templates that contain program segment and break (avail) information. Formats are scheduled to cover each time period within the broadcast day and are the framework used to build a log (playlist).

Forward Error Correction (FEC): is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmissions over unreliable or marginal communication links. The transmit site sends additional data packets to provide protection to potentially lost packets, thereby recovering lost data information. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

Frame: A frame is one complete image in a sequence of images that make up video. The frame captures and displays all pixels and lines of an image. 30 Frames Per Second is one of the media standards. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules, and X100 support this feature.

Frame Rate: The frequency (rate) at which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images (frames). Term applies equally well to film and video, computer graphics and motion capture systems. Frame rate is most often expressed in frames per second (FPS) and is also expressed in progressive scan monitors as Hertz (Hz).

Frame Size: Every frame is a bitmap digital image that comprises a raster of pixels. If it has a width of W pixels and a height of H pixels we say that the frame size is WxH. For example, 1080i is 1920 pixels × 1080 lines; 720p is 1280 x 720; and QCIF is 352 × 288. Frame Size is important because the larger the frames, the more processing needed to convert to another format. Also, Frame Size can indicate whether the device is compatible or not. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules, and X100 support this feature.

Frame Synchronizer: A digital buffer that, by a very small amount of storage (up to 30 Frames), compares sync information to a reference and timed release of video signals, can continuously adjust the signal for any timing errors. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules and X100 support this feature.

Frames: One of the many still images that compose a complete moving picture. When played back over time, the displaying of multiple frames gives the illusion of motion. NTSC video plays back 29.97 frames per second, and PAL and SECAM video plays back 25 frames per second. In digital technology, a video frame is represented as a rectangular raster of pixels.

Gamma Correction: nonlinear operation used to code and decode luminance values (color space); this process can improve picture quality when configured correctly. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules, and X100 support this feature.

General Ledger (G/L): A general listing of all accounting transactions, including accounts payable/accounts receivable, payroll, fixed assets, etc.

General Purpose Interface (GPI): a standard contact closure format used to communicate amongst equipment (for example, allowing computer based editing equipment to synchronously “start” at the same time). Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Graphics: Visuals prepared for display on television, such as electronically generated titles, charts or animations (motion graphics), designed to accompany content such as news, sports, and commercials to improve understanding and recall of the content by viewers. Often referred to as Broadcast Graphics, Motion Graphics or Television Graphics. Versio™ Graphics supports this feature.

Gross Rating Points (GRPs): The sum of the rating percentage achieved, providing a unit of measurement of audience size. GRPs may be referred to as Gross Impressions or Gross Audience.

Group of pictures (GoP): In an MPEG signal the GoP is a group of frames between successive I frames, the others being P and/or B frames. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 modules support this feature.

GUI (Graphical User Interface): A type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices and software via images rather than text commands.

Headend: The electronic control center of a cable system. The site of the receiving antenna and the signal processing equipment essential to proper functioning of a cable system.

High Dynamic Range (HDR): consists of a video signal with expanded luminosity to better match what the human eye can see. It is important to note that Dynamic Range is separate from color and resolution. Dynamic Range is a luminance value. Selenio Network Processor supports HDR conversion between PQ, HLG and SDR for this feature.

Households (HH): A statistical estimation of homes that have a working television.

Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) HDR: This HDR version is the most common today, especially in live environments. It is designed to be backward compatible to SDR devices, but this interoperability is not always the case and should be tested. Selenio Network Processor supports HDR conversion between PQ, HLG and SDR for this feature.

Identification (ID): A short on-air sponsorship or channel identification spot or mention.

Impression: The delivery of one advertisement to one person. Derived from Ratings, impressions are a statistical figure based on the estimated number of people in a demographic area. For the Internet, an impression is the total number of times an advertising banner has been served and successfully loaded to the Web population.

Impression-based Buying: A trading methodology allowing advertising to be purchased based on the number of viewers that will be served a given ad.

Ingest: The process of capturing, transferring or otherwise importing different types of video, audio or image media into a media environment, typically a video server, in order to use it in a program. Once the video is captured, media can be easily moved, transformed (transcoded), edited or played out by the video server.

Integration Services: Data synchronization/alignment between disparate systems, as used in ad tech to allow continuous sharing of reference, demand, and supply data to drive optimization.

Interstitial: Literally meaning “in-between.” Refers to short programming that is often shown between movies or other events. On the Internet, an interstitial is an advertisement that appears in a separate browser window while the user waits for a Web page to load.

Inventory: Time in a program that is available for sale, taking into consideration the time that has already been sold and the carrying capacity of the group. Also known as Avails, Spots and Time (airtime), the inventory system is a major component of an Advertising Sales and Traffic System.

Invoice: An affidavit or proof-of-performance document that conveys the spots ordered by the advertiser, the spots aired by the station, the copy that ran for each spot, and any discrepancies that might have occurred during the given billing period.

IPTV: The delivery of content over IP over internet protocol.

JITP, Just-in-time Packaging: Converts packages, automatically, based on the device requesting the content which greatly reduces storage costs. Packager supports this feature.

Join in Progress (JIP): The act of partially airing a program due to a run-over of the prior program or cut-in news segment.

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG); JPEG-2000; Motion-JPEG: Using JPEG compression as individual frames for motion. For example, 30 Motion-JPEG frames viewed in one second will approximate 30-frame per second video. Three levels of processing are defined: the baseline, extended and “lossless” encoding and JPEG-2000 is noted for its low-latency and high picture qualities; however, JPEG-2000 requires large amounts of bandwidth (e.g. 50 mbps to 200 mbps). Selenio J2K modules support this feature.

JITT, Just in time Transcoding: Backoffice and client device apps from companies like TiVo, Ericsson, Minerva, SeaChange, aioTV, Kaltura and many others.

Jitter: An undesirable random signal variation with respect to time – a stuttering effect. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules, and X100 can help correct this issue.

Late Order: An order that has been turned in by a salesperson after inventory has been manipulated and the log has been processed and passed on to the playout department.

Latency: The measurement of time comparing the source video versus the same video that is decoded. Latency can be between a couple frames (tenths of a second) to several seconds depending upon the codec and device. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules support this feature. The Selenio ENC2 / DEC2 / J2K modules are designed for very low latency (less than 1 second to even 10ths of a second).

Level A/B 1080p: HD video standard. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules, X100 support this feature.

Linear Frame Rate Conversion (LFR): the difference in frame rate between film, NTSC and PAL Standards. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules, and X100 support this feature as an option.

Linear Playout: Systems to manage the workflow of delivering channels to consumers, where content is received in time order following a specific schedule.

Linear TV: A video service that is originated and consumed in time order following a set schedule, whether that content is live or recorded/stored and irrespective of delivery method.

Live Feed: The use of only one transponder to transmit the programming of a television or cable network. For example, programming that airs in prime time in the Eastern time zone at 8-11 p.m. will air in the Pacific time zone from 5-8 p.m. Some networks that regularly use a live feed include CNN, ESPN, and The Weather Channel.

Live Log (Live Update): A playout process that automatically and seamlessly integrates the traffic system log with content management and automation systems to enable all systems to accurately reflect content status, time code and metadata in real time. The traffic schedule communicates bidirectionally with a running playlist on an automation system, allowing changes to be made to the log minutes before airtime. After playout, the traffic log and automation playlist are automatically reconciled with any issues passed to accounting for processing.

Live-streaming: Streaming media that is broadcast to many people at a set time, on demand, or continuously. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 modules support this feature.

Local Marketing Agreement (LMA): An agreement between two media company owners, in which a channel markets and sells the advertising for another.

Local Origination Channel: A channel programmed by a cable system, whether a public access channel, an advertiser-supported entertainment channel or a combination of both.

Log: In programming and playout, a document that shows, in time sequence, the programming and commercial events of a television or radio station’s broadcast day. The log is used to guide on-air staff in airing the proper events at the stated times, and as a record of aired times for billing and auditing purposes. Also known as the Presentation Schedule. In transmission, a log is the “chart” used when taking transmitter or other required equipment readings. In radio, log may refer to a music log, a schedule for music.

Logo: The symbol identifying a station or network.

Lower Third: A graphic placed in the lower area of the screen, typically featuring text or a graphic overlaying the video. Also known as CG, captions or supers, lower thirds do not necessarily cover the entire lower third of a video.

LTC (Linear Time Code or Longitudinal Time Code): The time and address control signal standardized by SMPTE 12M. Typically written on a time code or address track of a recording device, it provides an individual frame number for each video frame recorded. LTC is also commonly used to distribute time of day information to wall clocks, automation systems and other devices throughout a television facility. In regions of the world using the NTSC or similar non-integer (1/1.001) frame rates, LTC must be corrected regularly when it is used to convey time of day information (see drop frame).

Luminance: The component of a video signal that includes information about its brightness. Adjusting the luminance can create the desired visual effect. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules, and X100 support this feature.

Makegood: A commercial offered to and accepted by an advertiser to replace a commercial that did not run as scheduled or was aired improperly and is being run to “make good” (fulfill the intent) of the original order.

Master Control: The technical hub of a broadcast operation, controlling the final point before a signal is transmitted over-the-air or sent on to a cable television or satellite operator. Master control rooms typically include multiviewers, satellite receivers, video servers, transmission equipment, and broadcast automation equipment for recording and playback of television programming. Versio™ Control supports this feature.

Material: Material can be a commercial, program, promo, PSA, ID, billboard or anything else aired by a channel. Business and playout systems use a unique Material ID to know when and where to run a specific piece of material.

Media Asset Management (MAM); Digital Asset Management (DAM): software process that provides for the ingest, storage, and search of media libraries. Automation, Nexio® Motion™, Versio™ Content Portal, and Versio™ IOX support this feature.

Media Software Systems: Systems for advertising management, sales, traffic, billing and analytics that maximize ad revenue by streamlining business processes across multiple channels and platforms.

Megabyte (Mbyte): One million bytes (actually 1,048,576); one thousand kilobytes. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

Metadata: Informational data about the video data itself. Typically information about the video and audio data included in the signal’s data stream (e.g. Vertical Ancillary Data (VANC); closed captions, Time Code, KLV, etc.). Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Mezzanine compression: Contribution level quality encoded high definition television signals. Typically split into two levels: High Level at approximately 140 Mbps and Low Level at approximately 39 Mbps (for high definition within the studio, 270Mbps is being considered). These levels of compression are necessary for signal routing and are easily re-encoded without additional compression artifacts (concatenation) to allow for picture manipulation after decoding. Baseband Uncompressed Video is also used for this level of video quality. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules support this feature.

Monetization: To utilize something of value as a source of profit. In the media context, monetization involves finding ways to create additional revenue utilizing owned assets such as program content, user-generated content, or a website or mobile property, with advertising, subscriptions or by creating additional impressions (viewers). Our Ad Management Solutions support this feature.

Motion compensation: The use of motion vectors to improve the efficiency of the prediction of pixel values to improve encoding performance. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Motion estimation: An image compression technique that achieves compression by describing only the motion differences between adjacent frames, thus eliminating the need to convey redundant static picture information from frame to frame to improve encoding performance. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Microwave link: widely used for terrestrial point-to-point communications (like a studio to transmitter link) because their small wavelength allows conveniently-sized antennas to direct higher bandwidth connections (e.g. DS-3 / OC-3 / OC-12) cost effectively. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

MPEG-2: Video compression standards conceived by the Motion Pictures Expert Group, an international group of industry experts set up to standardize compressed moving pictures and audio. MPEG-2 is the basis for ATSC digital television transmission. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 modules support this feature.

MPEG-4; H.264: Video compression standards conceived by the Motion Pictures Expert Group, an international group of industry experts set up to standardize compressed moving pictures and audio. H.264 is the standard that is approximately twice as efficient as MPEG-2 with a similar picture quality and thus in higher demand for transport applications. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 modules support this feature.

MPEG Pre-Processing: Video and audio processing to improve the picture and audio quality prior to the video and audio encoders, which are unforgiving of artifacts (the encoders will encode artifacts, resulting in a less than desirable picture and audio quality). Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 modules and X100 support this feature.

MPEG splicing; SCTE-35 / SCTE-104 Insertion; spot / commercial insertion: The ability to cut into an MPEG transport stream for switching and editing, regardless of type of frames (I, B, P). Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 modules support this feature.

MSO (Multiple System Operator): A company that owns multiple cable systems.

Multicast: Transport Stream Data flow from single source to multiple destinations simultaneously; a multicast may be distinguished from a broadcast in that number of destinations may be limited. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

Multichannel: Managing, using or controlling many television channels, networks or systems.

Multichannel Video Program Distributor (MVPD): A cable or mobile / fixed / satellite telecom company that provides multichannel video services over its networks, and charges the end user for the service; often synonymous with Pay TV operator.

Multiplatform Delivery: The creation, management, and distribution of content for delivery to multiple types of devices in multiple contexts, including traditional linear distribution (television), streaming and through various mobile and on-demand services.

Multiple System Operator / MSO: Owner of multiple cable or direct-broadcast satellite television systems. All of our products support MSO’s in one way or another.

Multiplex: To transmit two or more video program signals at the same time in the same transport stream, such as ATSC multicasting. Demultiplexing is the process of pulling apart multiple program transport streams (MPTS) and Re-multiplexing is the process of combining single program transport streams (SPTS). Selenio MDX2 modules support this feature.

Multiplexer; MUX: Device for combining two or more video signals into a single, multiple program transport stream. Selenio MDX2 modules support this feature.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS): A high performance telecom network. Our products don’t necessarily worry about the protocol – rather, they ride on the network provided they have sufficient bandwidth and are reliable. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules support this feature.

Multiscreen: Adjective used in conjunction with the consumption, processing, delivery or monetization of video targeting multiple IP-connected devices such as connected televisions, smartphones, tablets, gaming consoles, and OTT devices. Encompasses both live and on-demand content as well as advanced services (such as interactivity).

Must Carry (Retransmission): Refers to a cable system’s mandatory signal carriage of both commercial and noncommercial television broadcast stations that are “local” to the area served by the cable system, as specified in the (USA) 1992 Cable Act.

NAB (National Association of Broadcasters): The organization that sets standards and practices for all broadcasters in the United States. It represents the broadcast industry before Congress, the FCC, and other government agencies. It provides economic studies and interpretations of government rules and industry guidelines.

National Rep: The link between the national advertiser, his agency and the broadcasting station. The primary function of the rep is to create and develop sales of national advertising time for the stations it represents.

Network: A program distributor interconnected with stations or cable systems for the distribution of programming.

Network DVR (nDVR): Network-based video recorder to schedule favorite programs to record for watching later; encrypt on the fly, per event or per session. Also referred to as Network Personal Video Recorder: nPVR, Remote Storage DVR: RS-DVR. See Cloud DVR.

Network Feed: The sending of network program material over network lines to affiliated stations or cable systems. The feed may be aired live or taped and broadcast later.

Noise Reduction (NR): Process of removing artifacts (noise) from a video and audio signal to improve the incoming picture and audio quality. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 modules, and X100 support this feature.

Nonlinear: A term used for editing and the storage of audio, video and data. Information (footage) is available anywhere on the media (storage on a local hard drive or network) almost immediately without having to locate the desired information in a time linear format. Versio and Nexio servers support this feature.

Nonlinear editing (NLE): Nonlinear editing is non-destructive–the video is not changed but the list of how that video is played back is modified during editing. NLE distinguishes its editing operation from the “linear” methods used with tape. Nonlinear refers to not having to edit material in the sequence of the final program and does not involve copying to make edits. It allows any part of the edit to be accessed and modified without having to re-edit or re-copy the material that is already edited and follows that point. Versio and Nexio Servers support this feature.

Nonlinear Platform: Systems that manage the workflow of delivering channels that allow users to select and consume video content on demand, irrespective of delivery method. Nonlinear systems include video-on-demand (VOD), mobile or internet streaming, and DVR (digital video recorder) systems.

NTR (Non-Traditional Revenue): Revenue generated by special projects that may or may not directly involve traditional, broadcast commercial advertising campaigns. Typical examples are job fairs or home shows, Internet and other non-broadcast advertising, printed coupon booklets, stage shows, the sale of promotional items, or anything not directly related to a simple broadcast log.

NTSC (National Television Standards Committee): Industry group that develops standards for television broadcasting and receiving equipment in the United States. The NTSC video standard is an analog video format with 525 lines per frame and is used as the broadcast standard in multiple countries that have not converted to digital television formats.

O&O: A station owned and operated by a national network.

OC12; OC-12: The 620 Mbps ATM SONET signal stream.

OC3; OC-3: The 155 Mbps ATM SONET signal stream.

Ofcom (Office of Communications): A United Kingdom government agency that regulates communications, including television, radio, telecommunications, mobile communications, and postal services.

Optimizer: A tool that books out an advertising campaign based on efficiency. xG GamePlan utilizes this tool.

OTO: The abbreviation for one-time-only, this refers to spots or programs that are to air only once.

Over the Top (OTT): video stream delivery beyond the primary channel(s) that are usually IP video stream services above and beyond the standard video programs service levels, hence the term “over the top”. Adtech encoders support this feature.

Oversell: Describes the situation when more spots are sold to advertisers than will fit in the avails defined for the log.

Oversubscription rate: Percentage over-provisioning of storage (the idea is that not all users will need 100% of their allocated storage).

Packager: Package to Internet formats such as Dash, Apple HLS, Microsoft Smooth Streaming or Adobe HDS. Sometimes also to encrypt. See our Packager product.

Paid Program: A long-form broadcast commercial frequently referred to as an infomercial or program-length commercial, which provides much more information than can be supplied in a typical 30- or 60-second commercial.

PAL: Phase alternate line. The television broadcast standard throughout most of Europe. Selenio XD / FS and and X100 modules support this feature.

Partitioning: Allows a single physical router to be software partitioned into multiple sub-groups of routers. For example, a 256×256 Platinum frame can be partitioned into two 128×128 independent routers. Platinum IP3 and Platinum MX support this feature.

Pause TV/Time-shift: Users pause the channel that they are currently watching, resume minutes later from the point it was paused; after resuming, can catch-up by fast-forwarding.

Perceptive Quantization (PQ): A high end HDR imaging technique and includes both HDR 10 and HDR 10+, which are open standards, and Dolby Vision, which is a licensed standard. PQ uses Metadata that is associated with the video to tell the receiving device, such as a projector or television, what its max brightness setting is. The metadata effectively indicates that HDR video is present, the Maximum Frame Average Light Level is the average for the entire video, a scene or a frame and the Metadata sets it to “X”, and the Maximum Content Light Level is the maximum value, which is also set by the Metadata. Selenio Network Processor supports HDR conversion between PQ, HLG and SDR for this feature.

Picture in Picture (PIP): Smaller resolution video stream for IPTV systems – often displayed on EPG systems. Selenio ENC1 modules support this feature.

Piggyback: Refers to two or more ads for different products, having the same sponsor, that are aired back-to-back in the time allocated for a single ad.

Playlist: The official schedule of all events that a television or radio station will play during a specific period, typically one day. The playlist includes all program, commercial and interstitial (promotions, bugs, crawls, etc.) information for the station to be able to play out programming.

Playout: The act of playing back via automation and video servers a playlist for air operations. Our Versio™ modular playout enables you to operate a single playout ecosystem – from ingest and media asset management to playout, master control, and graphics – for generating content for broadcast, OTT, linear, nonlinear, mobile, or any other platform. Versio can be deployed on-premises, in the public cloud, or in a hybrid environment. Automation, Nexio and Versio support this feature.

Preemption: The displacement of a regularly scheduled program or commercial. When a regularly scheduled program is replaced by special programming, the regular program is said to have been preempted.

Prime Time: Time on the programming schedule with the greatest viewership and typically the most expensive airtime. Prime Time is the time when most viewers are available (e.g., at home, not at work) to view programming, and is usually a four-hour period falling between the hours of 7 p.m. –and 11 p.m.

Private Copy: Copy for each user. U.S. legal requirement states that each subscriber must have his/her own version of a recorded program. (Cannot share from a common copy.)

Profile: Specific bitrate & resolution within a Multi-bit Rate stream.

Programmatic: In digital marketing, programmatic marketing campaigns are automatically triggered by any type of event and deployed according to a set of rules applied by software and algorithms. Human skills are still needed in programmatic campaigns as the campaigns and rules are planned beforehand and established by marketers. LandmarkOSI supports this feature.

Programming: The output or product of a station that is presented in long-form or short-form styles. Long-form programming describes a schedule of programs covering longer increments, such as 30 minutes or an hour. Short-form programming describes a constant format of shorter content modules like music videos or weathercasts. Short videos on the Internet would also be considered short-form programming.

Promo: A spot, similar to a commercial, containing a promotional announcement for a channel, a program or an event.

PSA (Public Service Announcement): A spot, similar to a commercial, containing information of interest to the general public and aired by the station at no charge. An example of a PSA would be a spot informing the public of free blood-pressure check-ups on a certain day, or a Red Cross Blood Drive.

Pull: Content delivered to the user upon request.

Push: Content delivered regardless of user interest. The user chooses what to view without controlling what is sent. Broadcast television and radio are considered “push.”

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM): A downstream digital modulation technique used by cable systems for encoding and distribution of video and audio. Selenio MDX2 modules will not support this feature fully, but with an external modulator can support this feature.

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK): a digital frequency modulation technique used in satellite distribution networks.

QuickTime Files; MOV: video files generated with Apple Computer’s QuickTime and played on various operating systems and devices.

Rate Shaping; Bitrate: enables bandwidth management of the transport stream without completely decoding the signal. Use case includes broadcasters or cable MSO who need to collect multiple signals and fit them into a specific TS size.

Rating: The percent of all people in a demographic group tuned to a specific station at the same time. A rating point is a value equal to 1% of a population (universe). Example: If there are 1.9 million people in a metropolitan area and 12% of the people that own TVs are tuned to Channel 4, Channel 4 has a 12 rating.

Reach: The number of homes to which a service is available regardless of whether or not residents choose to subscribe or view, referring to the availability of a service in a community. Reach is also referred to as “net impressions” or “net audience.”

Real-time Bidding (RTB): A programmatic type of advertising sales, typically used for the internet, where ad inventory is bought and sold on a per-impression basis, through an auction. The process aggregates multiple networks together, allowing advertisers the ability to manage and optimize an advertising campaign across channels.

Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP): An IP transmission model for delivering video and audio over IP networks with a small amount of corrective ability via handshaking of statistics between the transmitting and receiving devices. Corrective re-transmissions can take place. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

Reclocking: The process of clocking digital data with a regenerated clock. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules, and X100 support this feature.

Reconciliation (Log Reconciliation): The traffic process of balancing what spots aired and what spots were ordered so that advertisers are billed properly.

Red Green Blue (RGB): The abbreviation for the red, green and blue signals, the primary colors of light (and television). Adjusting the handles can impact image quality. Selenio XD / FS modules and X100 support this feature.

Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID): A grouping of standard disk drives together with a RAID controller to create storage that acts as one disk to provide performance beyond that available from individual drives and protection for the data on disk by varying amounts (e.g. mirrored disks are a basic RAID Level 1 configuration). Nexio Video Servers support this feature.

Regulatory Authority: A government agency that regulates communications, such as television, satellite, cable, radio, and telephony. Examples include Ofcom (UK), BNetzA (Germany), FCC (US), BOCRA (Botswana), ARCEP (France) and IMDA (Singapore)

Rep Firm: A company that sells time on (represents) stations or cable systems to national advertisers. These firms are sales agents for large rosters of stations that otherwise would have no affordable access to national or regional advertisers.

Repeater: Low powered, localized transmitters that automatically pick up the signal of a parent broadcast station and retransmit the amplified signal on the same channel. Used in remote geographical regions.

Resolution; 8-bit; Bit depth: In digital video and audio, the number of bits (8, 10, 12, etc.) determines the resolution of the digital signal while bit depth is the number of levels that a pixel might have, such as 256 with an 8-bit. More bits means the higher resolution in the video picture. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Resolution; 10-bit; Bit depth: In digital video and audio, the number of bits (8, 10, 12, etc.) determines the resolution of the digital signal while bit depth is the number of levels that a pixel might have, such as 1,024 with a 10-bit depth. More bits means the higher resolution in the video picture. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC2 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Restrictions: Limitations dictated by a regulatory body or a sales organization as to where commercials may be placed (e.g., in what content, times, dates, projected viewing audience mix, etc.).

Rights Management: The process of tracking and maximizing the value of contracts that define both the creation of and distribution of intellectual property, media content, and other media assets.

Rotation: The distribution of commercials across a representative cross-section of days and hours within the purchased broad time period. Scheduling of advertising in the same program or time period on different days each week is referred to as horizontal rotation, while distribution throughout the hours of a particular day is referred to as vertical rotation.

Running Time: The length of time for a show to go from start to finish. Often abbreviated TRT (total running time).

Salvo: a group of sources switched to a group of destinations, usually with a single command. A salvo can be programmed that switches multiple sources to multiple destinations at the same time. For example, a salvo can be used to switch a production studio’s cameras from one studio to another, enabling a fast and reliable router source change. Magellan SDNO, Platinum IP3, and Platinum MX support this feature.

Sample Rate Conversion: The process of converting from one digital sample rate to another. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules and X100 support this feature.

Schedule: A list of the advertiser’s commercials, time of day and dates, and the stations or networks programs.

Second Screen: Use of multiple types of devices (television, laptop, tablet, mobile phone) and information services (such as television programs, social media or web browsing), simultaneously. The term is frequently used to describe the use of “second screen” devices to provide interactive features during linear content, such as a television program, served from a web browser or special app. For example, a person watching TV uses a tablet device to interact with friends on social media as they watch a program.

Sell-side Optimization: Using sell-side, efficiency-based algorithms to determine the most appropriate placement of advertising across a number of campaigns, which increases the total amount of available audience to the buying community.

Separation Rules: A scheduling policy determined by individual channels that allows for a specified time or number of commercials between two competitive products of the same product type, either within the same commercial break or some other period.

Serial Digital Interface (SDI): The standard based on a 270 Mbps transfer rate. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 support this feature.

Set-Top Box (STB): These receivers (named because they typically sit on top of a television set) convert and display broadcasts from one frequency or type–analog cable, digital cable, or digital television) to a standard frequency (typically channel 3 or 4) for display on a standard analog television set. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / MDX2 modules can support streaming to STBs.

Share: The percentage of people currently tuned in to a program, station or network out of all the people currently tuned in to all stations.

Shared Copy: Where allowed, multiple subscribers who record the same content can view from a single, common recording.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP): Set of standards and interfaces for managing and controlling devices across IP networks. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules and X100 support this feature. Magellan NMS provides a configurable command and control system.

Simulcast: A joint broadcast airing at the same time on two television stations/networks, a television and a radio station, or another media outlet and a streaming service.

Skim: A report that shows future inventory availability.

Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP): compact connector that plugs into the socket to provide a connection, usually in devices that need to accommodate a wide variety of devices. The connector is then wired to the circuit. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 encoders support this feature.

SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers): An international professional association of engineers working in the motion imaging industries. The organization has developed more than 600 internationally recognized standards and guidelines for television production, filmmaking, digital cinema, audio recording, and information technology.

SMPTE 2022-5 “Forward Error Correction for High Bit Rate Media Transport Over IP Networks”: expands on Section 1 to allow larger row/column FEC combinations to support signals with bit rates up to 3 Gbps and beyond. Selenio Netork Processor, Selenio UCIP modules and X100 support this feature.

SMPTE 2022-6 “Transport of High Bit Rate Media Signals over IP Networks”: Specifies a way to transport high bit-rate signals (including uncompressed 3 Gbps 1080p video) that are not encapsulated in MPEG-2 transport streams. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio UCIP modules and X100 support this feature.

SMPTE 2022-7 “Seamless Protection Switching of SMPTE ST 2022 IP Datagrams”: Describes a way to send two matching streams of packets from a source to a destination over different paths and have the receiver switch automatically between them. This allows a perfect video signal to be reconstructed at the receiver as long as both paths do not fail simultaneously. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio UCIP / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules support this feature.

SMPTE 2059 (Precision Time Protocol or PTP): SMPTE industry standard for timing associated with video and audio delivery over IP. Selenio Network Processor, Magellan SDNO and EPIC multiviewer supports this feature.

SMPTE 2110: SMPTE industry standard for video and audio delivery over IP. ST-2110-1 is for timing. ST-2110-2 is for video. ST-2110-3 is for audio. ST-2110-4 is for metadata. Additional standards will be developed over time as needs arise. Selenio Network Processor, Magellan SDNO and EPIC multiviewer supports this feature.

SMPTE 310M: The SMPTE standard for synchronous serial interface (SSI) for MPEG-2 digital transport streams; used as the “standard” for the output from the ATSC systems multiplexer and the input to DTV transmitters. Selenio MDX2 modules support this feature.

Snipe: Lower third animation used to promote another show or product during a television show.

Society of Cable Television Engineers (SCTE): Industry organization to establish standards and technology advances in the video and audio industry.

Software-Defined Network Orchestration (SDNO): The Magellan SDNO™ is a software layer that works with Imagine Communications routers, RCPs, SNP and other devices to provide a control layer to enable baseband and IP flows across a video playout facility. It is used to simplify the control so operators can avoid computer user interfaces for normal daily operations. Selenio Network Processor, Platinum Series Routers and Control Panels and Magellan SDNO Controllers support this feature.

Software-Defined Workflows: The workflow manager provides an agile software engine that enables broadcasters and multichannel video programming distributor (MVPD) to design, deploy and manage extensible, customizable, software-defined workflows that can be quickly scaled and adapted to accelerate service velocity and simplify management. Selenio Network Processor supports this feature.

Sonet: Synchronous optical network. A set of standards for the digital transmission of information over fiber optics. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules and X100 support this feature.

Sponsor/Sponsorship: An advertiser who buys the exclusive right to the available commercial time within a program.

Spot: A commercial announcement, typically less than five minutes long, which is placed within or next to a program. The most common spot lengths are 15, 30 and 60 seconds.

Squeeze Back: A process that reduces video images so that other items (logos, crawls, graphics) can be seen in the viewing area.

Standard Billing Month: Also known as the “broadcast month,” refers to the month advertising agencies frequently use for billing purposes. It is defined as a fiscal month that ends on the last Sunday of a calendar month. This month can have four or five weeks in it, but it will always allow for a complete Monday through Sunday billing week.

Standard Dynamic Range (SDR): the imaging technique we’ve had in place for years and there are millions of components deployed globally that support this basic video standard. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules and X100 support this feature.

Start-over TV/Re-Start TV: Users who view a program a few minutes late from normal airtime can watch the program from its beginning.

Statement: A summary of an advertiser’s accounts receivable status typically sent with an invoice. Adds together all charges, credits, service charges on delinquent balances and shows the total amount owed by an advertiser, sponsor or program underwriter for all contracts and charges combined.

Station: A broadcast entity licensed to a market by a regulatory authority such as the FCC (US), CRTC (Canada) or Ofcom (UK). Also known as a “channel.”

Station Identification (ID or Station ID): The announcement between programs on the hour or half-hour in which local stations are required by a regulatory authority to identify themselves (typically by name and city of origin).

Statistical Multiplexing; Statmux: Increases the overall efficiency of a multi-channel digital television transmission multiplex by varying the bit-rate of each of its channels to take only that share of the total multiplex bit-rate it needs at any one time. The share apportioned to each channel is predicted statistically with reference to its current and recent-past demands. Selenio MDX2 modules support this feature.

Streaming Media: Multimedia content–such as video, audio, text, or animation–that is displayed by a client as it is received from the Internet, broadcast network, or local storage. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 modules support this feature.

Supply and Demand: In Ad Speak, “supply” refers to available inventory and “demand” refers to advertising orders/campaigns.

Syndicated Program (Syndication): A program that is produced for national distribution, but is shown on individual local stations, cable systems or cable networks rather than on a national network. These programs may be sponsored either locally or nationally.

Target Audience: A portion of the TV audience identified (targeted) by an advertiser to be the most likely to purchase its product.

TCO (Total Cost of Ownership): A financial estimate intended to help buyers and owners determine the direct and indirect costs of a product or system.

TCP/IP; IP Interface: Transmission control protocol/internet protocol. An protocol suite that governs the exchange of sequential data. IP routes outgoing and recognizes incoming messages. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

Telco: A public utility that provides telecommunications services.

Terrestrial Television: A type of television broadcasting involving transmitting the television signal by radio waves. Homes with antennas capable of picking up the broadcast signals are able to receive the television transmission. Also known as over-the-air or OTA.

Time Code: Vertical interval time code (VITC) is SMPTE time code that is recorded as video signals in the vertical interval of the active picture. 2. Linear time code (LTC) is time code recorded on a linear analog track (typically an audio channel) on a videotape. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules, and X100 and Videotek products support this feature.

Trade: An agreement between a station and an advertiser, by which the station receives merchandise or services, not cash, in exchange for airtime. Outside the U.S., trade may be referred to as “contra.”

Traffic: The scheduling of program material, advertisements, and copy information for a broadcast day based on a program schedule and commercial time availability (inventory). See our Traffic solutions here.

Traffic Department: The department in a station, channel or network that coordinates the information flow between programming, sales, continuity and promotion, and uses that information to create the program log.

Transcode: The process of converting a file or program from one format, codec and resolution to another (e.g. MPEG-2 HD to H.264 SD). live transcoding is transcoding a stream that is immediately continuous whereas file transcoding is the transcoding of a file to another file. Multiple codec and bitrate support is a key feature. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / J2K modules, and SelenioFLEX File support this feature.

Transport Stream (TS) Format Conversion; ASI to 310; ASI to DS-3; ASI to OC-3 / OC-12; ASI to IP (or vice – versa): Converts the video and audio transport stream (compressed video in most cases) between a variety of encapsulation types before routing the signal onward. Selenio MDX2 modules support this feature.

Trigger: A message that arrives at a specific point in time during a broadcast and intended to activate a specific event. When referring to automation systems, triggers start a different event in a program schedule, e.g., a video source code of SAT (satellite) would automatically ‘trigger’ the automation system to play content from that specific video source.

Trouble Slide; Slate Insertion: ability to insert a video slide when an error or automated command occurs – for example, upon loss of video, a “Trouble Slide” can appear indicating the loss of video for a faster technical response. Audio may or may not be present. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 modules, and X100 support this feature.

Two-way Cable TV Capability: Interactive services offered by cable systems, such as home shopping, banking, and polling services.

UI (User Interface): Tools for interaction between individual users and computing resources.

Unicast: In networking, this is the sending of messages to a single network destination identified by a unique IP address. Unicast is one form of point to point communications. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K modules support this feature.

Universe: The total households/persons in a given demographic or population group, typically used to measure a television or radio audience.

Up / Down / Cross Conversion; Video Scaler: The conversion of video signals between SD, 720p, 1080i, or 1080p formats. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD modules and X100 support this feature.

User bits: User-assignable bits in timecode typically used to contain date, reel numbers, scene and take numbers and other user-oriented data.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP): A simple IP transmission model with no handshaking between the transmitting and receiving devices and thus exposes any unreliability of the underlying network. No corrective re-transmissions will take place. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

Very High Frequency (VHF): The part of the radio spectrum from 30 to 300 megahertz, which includes TV channels 2-13, the FM broadcast band, and some marine, aviation, and land mobile services.

Video & Audio Legalization; Video Legalizer: Automated function where the user configures their video preferences in terms of processing, color and other settings – once complete, the device will monitor and automatically correct the incoming signals. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules, X100 and Videotek Legalizer support this feature.

Video Descriptive Audio; VDS; Audio Description: Additional narration track intended primarily for blind and visually impaired viewers of video media. Selenio XD / FS modules offer an intelligent processing capability to fill gaps in the VDS audio with main channel audio. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS / ENC1 / ENC2 modules, and X100 support this feature.

Video Over IP; IPTV: Technique of routing video and audio over IP using RTP / UDP / Multicast / Unicast. Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature. (See IPTV)

Video Processor; Proc Amp: The ability to adjust color and other picture information for analog, SD and HD video signals. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules and X100 support this feature.

Video Scalar: Video processing function that manipulates the mathematics of the video picture to alter the picture quality with positive results. Selenio Network Processor, Selenio XD / FS modules and X100 support this feature.

Video Server: A storage system that provides audio and video storage for a network of clients. Nexio video servers support this feature.

Video Transport; Video Studio to Transmitter Link (STL); Studio to Studio Link (STS); Centralcasting, Network Distribution Encoding: The process of transmitting video and audio from one location to another (e.g. the studio to a television transmitter; studio to studio link; studio to satellite uplink, etc.). The transmission can be to multiple locations over any combination of available links (e.g. IP, satellite, microwave, telecom circuits like DS3/0C3, etc.). Selenio Network Processor, Selenio ENC1 / ENC2 / DEC1 / DEC2 / J2K / MDX2 modules support this feature.

VOD (Video On Demand): Systems that allow users to select and consume video content on demand. IPTV technology is often used to bring video on demand to televisions and personal computers. VOD systems typically stream content through a set-top box, computer or other device, allowing viewing in real time. Viewing recorded content from a DVR or website (also known as Catch up TV) is a form of video on demand.

Wastage: Impressions/ratings achieved that are not monetized. Specifically, potentially saleable reached audiences that are “lost” by placing a spot in a break that is targeting/paying for another audience segment.

Workflow: A sequence of connected steps required to complete a process, consisting of inputs, transformation rules, and outputs. Examples include automatic routing, partially automated processing and integration between different functional business and operational applications and hardware systems.

Yield Management: The act of balancing supply and demand and monitoring and adjusting pricing to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of advertising campaign management with the goal of improving overall revenue “yield” from the available inventory.

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